Portugal | Geography | People | Economy | Tourism and Problems

 Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is an old country in Southwestern Europe with a small area and great influence on the rest of the world. Portugal is a land of great food, great beaches, and some of the most stunning old cities like Braga and Porto.


Portugal is a rectangle-shaped country with a small land area of 92,212 km² located at the very end of the Iberian Peninsula bordered by Spain on all three sides. As well as there are two island regions in between the Atlantic ocean they have the westernmost points in Europe, the island of Santa Cruz das Flores.


Portugal has one of the oldest borders in the world which is shared with Spain. In fact, there is a zipline across the river Guadiana which links Portugal into Spain.

The country is divided into 18 districts and two autonomous regions. The capital city of Portugal is Lisbon whereas Porto, Villa Nova De Gaia, Braga, Amadora, Queluz, and Funchal are other major cities.

Northern parts of Portugal are generally more mountainous with 2 main mountain regions: the Northern Meseta mountains and the Sierra Da Estrela.

The country has three main rivers and the longest river of the country is Otago which meets into the largest lake of the country Lake Alkaviva.

The south of the country is mostly flatter and lush with the Sado Basin. Azores and Madeira's islands are lush and green with mild to warm weather around the year.


Portugal has about 10.2 million people in 2021 and they are one of the top aging populations in the world and have the highest emigration rate in the EU.

Around 90 to 95 percent of the population identifies themselves as Portuguese. The Remaining five to ten percent of the population comes from all over the world, mostly from Europe and former colonial states like Brazil, Angola, and Mozambique. There are small Asian minorities as well, mostly from Macau, India Pakistan, and Nepal.

The official language of Portugal is Portuguese which is a Latin-based Romance language related to the Galician language category. Some people find Portuguese is the most difficult Latin language to learn as compare to others.

The most predominant religion of Portugal is Christianity. About 81% of the country's population identifies as Roman Catholic and others minority religions are Islam and Hinduism, Mostly followed by people migrated from Asia and the Middle East.


Portugal is a developed country however they have a very low economic growth rate because of the declining population and emigration. The Portuguese economy is heavily based on the service sector. Whereas Agriculture and Industries contribute about 27% of their GDP.

Portugal is the largest producer of Bottle Cork and Carob. As well as they produce Chestnut and Olive Oil in large sectors.

Major trading partners of Portugal are Spain, France, Germany, United Kingdom, and the United States.

In 2020, the GDP of Portugal was declined by 7.6% and they are improving their shrunk economy by improving in Capital Market and gross productivity of the country.


In terms of Tourism, Portugal is packed with historical sites, beautiful beaches, old towns, and medieval castles. There are 17 UNESCO world heritage sites alone in this small nation.

The entire city of Porto looks colorful and filled with beautiful architecture. They also have the coolest bookstore and the most beautiful McDonald's.

Porto, Portugal

Places to Visit in Portugal

  • Albufeira

  • Èvora

  • Funchal

  • Historic City of Porto

  • Beach of Ericeira

  • Alentejo Museum

  • Colorful Cintra Area

  • Belém Tower

  • The Douro Valley

Every year there is a huge program conducted in the town of Fatima which is one of the holiest sites in Portugal.

Visiting Portugal is affordable as compare to other western European countries like Germany and France. In fact, it is a very safe country to visit according to some fellow travelers.

Nature and Wildlife

Over 1/3 of the country is forested mostly with Oaks, Pines, and eucalyptus which has a great contribution to the production of paper products.

Portugal is biologically diverse and home to many animal species like Wild Pigs, Wild

Goats, Hares, Rabbit, and Foxes.

Being closer to the ocean, they have a great influence on the oceanic environment. You can experience beautiful beaches and surfing spots over the Portuguese coastal area.

Beautiful Nature in Portugal

Do you know? Praia do Norte in Nazaré, Portugal, is home to skyscraper-sized waves which is the best place for Surfing lovers.

Fact: Portugal is one of the hottest countries in Europe.


Portuguese were the first to invent galleon ships that launched off the Age of Discovery for Europe.

List of some of the notable people of Portugal or Portuguese descent.

  • Luis Figo

  • Prince Henry the Navigator

  • Vasco de Gama

  • Paulo Rico

  • Nelly Furtado

  • Tom Hanks

  • Antonio Salazar

  • Famous Football Cristiano Ronaldo

Portuguese are great innovators from the decades. Especially they have a great contribution towards world exploration and ancient inventions of marine instruments like Compass and Ships. Okay, let's find more about it.

Some of the Great Inventions of Portugal:

  • Oceanic Galleon

  • The Caravel

  • Japanese Tempura

  • The Mariner's Astrolabe

International Relations

Portugal is a small nation that has over 30 times more people outside the country who speak Portuguese. This shows how much impact they have in the world despite their smaller size.

They have the longest official alliance with the UK and they have been working alongside the British for a long time and have developed bilateral policies and trade partnerships for centuries.

Do you know? Portuguese introduced tea to the Britishers.

There are the highest numbers of Portuguese people living in France than any other nation in the world at about 2 million. Portuguese love the French culture and have integrated very well into French society.

They still have close ties with their former colonies especially Brazil, Angola, and Mozambique. Many of these people have moved to Portugal and you can find them in major cities like Lisbon and Porto.

Brazil is their biggest friend outside Europe where they had colonized and they became a massive giant economy in the world. Currently, they have got independence from Portugal but

Both have shared a family bond that will always have high favor towards each other.

The oldest friend of Portugal is Spain and they have always had great relations in the past. They also have a quite similar language and culture.


Every country is facing some problems. Portugal also has a huge problem of Declining population and workforce.

Similarly, Portugal is experiencing an economic crisis, a rising unemployment rate, and government debt.

Because of the global pandemic of COVID-19, it is getting more difficult to recover their economy which is already in crisis.

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